3. Vocabulary

SCIENTIFIC VOCABULARY

A-C  

1.                 accelerate (v.) يعجل , acceleration (n.), accelerated (adj.) – speed up

          E.G.  By adding this chemical, we accelerate the process.

2.                 address (v.) يوجه – focus on, concentrate on

           E.G. We need to address the need for a cure for this disease.

3.                 affect (v.) يؤثر في – to influence

           E.G. Eating too much candy will affect your weight.

4.                 anxiety (n.), anxious (adj.), anxiously (adv.) قلق

            E.G. He is suffering from anxiety.

5.                 apparatus جهاز (n.) – device, piece of equipment, gadget, tool 

            E.G. The astronauts have special breathing apparatus.

6.                 application (n.), apply (v.) applied (adj.) a. spread on; b. استعمال – use

i.         G.   An application of sunscreen on your skin before you go out in the sun will prevent

                   sunburn.

ii.              One application of the program is that it can be used by physicists.

7.             apply (v.), application (n.) يضع  – put on, apply, rub on, spread over

        E.G. Apply the cream all over your skin.

8.             area (n.) – region, part منطقه

         E.G. He was suffering from pain in the area near his heart.

9.              assemble (v.) يركب  – put together, construct

          E.G. The worker assembled the new machine.

10.           aspect (n.) مظهر – quality

         E.G. HIV can be defined according to three aspects: cause, symptoms, and treatment.

11.            attach (v.), attachment (n.) يرفق  – fasten, append, connect

         E.G. Attach your photograph to your application.

12.             basic (adj.) أساسي – essential, fundamental, necessary

         E.G. Food is a basic human need.

13.            beaker (n.) كوب صيدلي – a glass container used in laboratories for pouring liquids

          E.G. The beaker contained a liquid.

14.             blister (n.) بثرة – sore

         E.G. My new shoes caused a blister on my heel.

15.            blistering (n.), blister (v.) يتقرح، يبثر

         E.G. The acid resulted in an area of blistering on his hand.

16.              bond (v.), bond (n.)   يتماسك– adhere, attach, become firmly fixed together

          E.G. It takes less than 10 seconds for the two papers to bond.

17.             branch off (v. phrase)   يتفرع – separate

         E.G. The bronchi branch off into bronchioles.

18.             called (adj.), call (v.) يسمى – termed, named

         E.G. A special tool, called a gastroscope, is used to perform a gastroscopy.

19.            carrier (n.), carry (v.) حامل ( مرض ، شيء) – transmitter

         E.G. Fleas are carriers of the Y. pestis bacterium.

20.          catch (v.) يصاب – contract, become infected with

          E.G. He caught a cold.

21.            chief (adj.) رئيس – principal, foremost, leading

         E.G. The chief reason for attending school is to acquire knowledge.

22.            choke up (v.) يخنق – fill with tears

         E.G. He choked up when he heard the bad news.

23.            chronic (adj.) مزمن – unable to be cured

         E.G. He suffers from chronic arthritis.

24.           circular (adj.) مستدير

        E.G. He moved his arms in a circular motion.

25.          clump (n.), clump (v.) مجموعة أشجار – bunch, cluster, mass

        E.G.  The ball was lost in a clump of trees.

26.          cognitive (adj.) مفكر – related to the process of knowing, thinking, and learning

      E.G.   Cognitive skills are important for students.

27.          collaborate (v.), collaboration (n.), collaborative (adj.), collaboratively (adv.)  يشترك – work

                 together,  pool resources

       E.G.  Faisal and Abdulaziz collaborated on the project.

28           collaboratively (adv.) يتعاون – jointly

       E.G. Faisal and Abdulaziz worked on the project collaboratively.

29.          collaborator (n.) زميل – colleague, coworker

       E.G. Faisal and Abdulaziz are collaborators on the project.

30           combat (v.) يصارع – try to stop, try to reduce, try to defeat

      E.G.  The doctor used a new drug to combat the effects of the common cold.

31.          commence (v.) يبدأ – begin, start

   E.G.  We commenced our studies in September.

32.       common (adj.) a. عادي, b. مشترك

i. E.G.  Kuwaitis and Saudis share a common language.

ii.     Measles used to be a common childhood disease.

33.   communicable (adj.) قابل للنقل أو الإبلاغ

       E.G.  Measles is a communicable disease.

34.  complex (adj.) معقد – complicated, intrincate

      E.G. Brain surgery is a very complex procedure.

35.  complicated (adj.) – complex

      E.G. This is a complicated question.

36.  complication (n.) مضاعفه – an added difficulty; one disease superimposed on another diseasewithout being specifically related yet affecting or modifying the prognosis of the original disease

       E.G.   One complication of the measles can be pneumonia.

37.   confer (v.) يمنح – give, bestow

       E.G. His father conferred the name Bader on him.

38.   Congenital (n.) خلقي

       E.G. The baby was born with a congenital birth defect.

39.  constant (adj.) ثابت – steady, unvarying

       E.G. The mixture must be kept at a constant temperature.

40.  contain (v.) يحتوي – hold, be full of

       E.G. The glass contained water.

41. continual (adj.), continually (adv.) مستمر – repeated, persistent, repetitive

      E.G. The teacher asked him to stop his continual chatter.

42. contract (v.) يعدي – become infected with, catch

      E.G. He contracted leprosy while he was living in India.

43. controversy (n.), controversial (adj.) مناقشه – debate, argument

      E.G. There was a controversy over whether we should go or stay.

44  convert (v.), conversion (n.), converted (adj.) يحول – changed, transformed

      E.G. The water was converted into steam.

45.  convey (v.) ينقل – transmit

      E.G. The disease is conveyed to humans by infected mice.

46. crucial (adj.), crucially (adv.) مهم جدا – vital, critical, key

      E.G. Receiving prompt treatment is crucial if the patient is to live.

47. culminate (v.), culmination (n.) ينهي، يبلغ أقصى حد – end in

      E.G. Hodgkin’s disease eventually culminates in death.

 D-F

1.  debilitating (adj.), debilitation (n.), debilitate (v.)  يضعف – incapacitating, weakening

    E.G. AIDS is a debilitating disease.

2. defective (adj.), defect (n.) فيه خلل أو عيب – faulty, imperfect, flawed

    E.G. A defective heart valve can lead to health problems.

3. defend (v.), defense (n.) يدافع عن – to say or to write something to support somebody or something

    E.G. Although everyone said Faisal was wrong, he defended his answer to the question.

4. deficiency (n.) نقص – lack of

    E.G. He suffered from a deficiency of vitamin A.

5. definite (adj.) واضح – clear; easy to see or notice

    E.G. There was a definite change in the liquid after the catalyst was added.

6. degenerative (adj.), degenerate (v.), degeneration (n.) مخل – worsening (without hope of

   improvement), deteriorating

   E.G. Huntington’s disease is a degenerative disease.

7.        depression (n.), depress (v.), depressed (adj.) اكتئاب – dejection, gloom

          E.G. He suffered from depression because of the death of his child.

8.         deranged (adj.)  مشوش– abnormal in appearance

          E.G.The cells had become deranged and no longer resembled the parent cell.

9.         derive (v.) يشتق – to come from

          E.G.The main ingredient in the painkiller is derived from a common plant.

10.      detect (v.), detection (n.) يكتشف – identify, discover

          E.G. Researchers have not detected the cause of autism.

11.      devastate (v.), devastation (n.), devastated (adj.)  مهجور – crush, desolate

          E.G. The bad news devastated his mother.

12.      dimension (n.) بعد – measurement (e.g., length, height)

          What are the dimensions of the new building?

13.       discover (v.), discovery (n.)   يكتشف– learn, determine, detect

          E.G. Scientists have discovered that a mutant gene causes the disease.

14.      disparity (n.)   اختلاف – difference

Most new cells failed to develop; however, new cells in the hippocampus did mature. This disparity

may be because they are needed there.

15.   dissipate (v.) يشتت – scatter; make disappear; disintegrate; dissolve

       Drinking a lot of water dissipates the toxin.

16.  dissolve (v.) يذوب – to make something solid become part of a liquid by putting it in a liquid

       E.G. Sugar dissolves in water.

17. distorted (v.), distortion (n.) distorted (adj.) يشوه – change so that something appears unnatural

       E.G. The chemical distorted the natural shape of the object.

18.  distribution (n.), distribute (v.) توزيع  – location, dispersal

       E.G. The map shows the distribution of AIDS cases throughout the world.

19.  divide يقسم (v.), division (n.), divided (adj.) – separate, split

       E.G. They divided the work among themselves.

20. dizzi  (adj.), dizzily (adv.), dizziness (n.) مصاب بدوار

      E.G. he heat made me dizzy.

21. dome (n.), domed (adj.) قبة – a shape like a ball cut in half

      E.G. The object was shaped like a dome.

22.  donor (n.), donate (v.) مانح – giver, supplier

      E.G. I hope there will be a kidney donor.

23. droplet (n.) قطرة صغيرة جداً – drop, bead, globule, drip

      E.G. The technician placed a droplet of blood on the glass slide.

24. early (adj.) مبكرا – initial

     E.G. Early signs of measles are fever and runny nose.

25. effect (n.) أثر – a change that is caused by something

      E.G. The effect of the diet was weight loss.

26. embed (v.)   يغرز به بإحكام– to fix something deeply and firmly in something else

      E.G. A piece of glass was embedded in the wound.

27. enable يمكن – يخول (v.) – allow, facilitate, permit, make possible

      E.G. Studying the vocabulary words enables students to pass the vocabulary test.

28.  enlarge (v.), enlargement (n.), enlarged (adj.) يكبر – make bigger, increase, expand

      E.G.  I asked the man to enlarge the photograph to a bigger size.

29.  entire (adj.), entirely (adv.) كامل – whole, complete, total

      E.G. I completed the entire task in less than one hour.

30.  equipment (n.) معدات (n.) – (This noun is always singular.) tools, utensils, apparatus

       E.G. The equipment included a Bunsen burner, tube, and beaker.

31.   eradicate (v.), eradication (n.) يستأصل – eliminate, get rid of, wipe out

       E.G. Smallpox has almost been eradicated.

32.  essential (adj.) أساسي – vital, crucial, critical

      E.G. Treatment is essential if a patient is to recover from bubonic plague.

33. evaporate (v.), evaporation (n.), evaporated (adj.) يتبخر – if a liquid evaporates or if something

     evaporates, it changes into steam; if a feeling evaporates, it slowly disappears

     E.G. The water evaporated into hot steam.

            Hope of reaching an agreement is evaporating.

34.         exaggerated (adj.)  متضخم  – larger than normal, overly large

           E.G.  The hematoma was exaggerated in size.

35.        execute (v.)   ينجز– carry out, perform

         E.G.  The vocal cords execute a series of well-coordinated movements during swallowing.

36.     exhibit (v.)   يبدو– show, display, demonstrate

         E.G. He exhibited signs of paranoia.

37.    expensive (adj.), expense (n.) متمدد – vast, extensive, sizeable, large

       E.G. The room was expensive.

38.   extraordinary (adj.) غير مألوف – unexpected, unusual

       Winning $1 million was extraordinary.

39.   extraordinary (adj.) غريب – strange, odd

       E.G. It was extraordinary that he didn’t know his own brother’s name.

40.  extraordinary (adj.)  استثنائي– special, exceptional, remarkable

      E.G. The discovery of the new drug was extraordinary.

41. facilitate (v.)  يمكن– enable

     E.G.  A gastroscope is an instrument that enables exploration of the upper gastric tract.

42.          fatigue (n.) إرهاق – exhaustion, weariness

            E.G. Because of fatigue, the woman fell asleep immediately after she went to bed.

43.         feature (n.)  ميزه – characteristic, trait, aspect, symptom

              One feature of the disease is trembling.

44.        fidget (v.), fidgety (adj.)  متململ– move around restlessly

      E.G. The little boy fidgeted in his chair.

45.       filtered (adj.), filtration (n.), filter (v.) يصفي

      E.G. The filtered water did not contain foreign matter.

46.      flake (n) قشارة – a very small flat thin piece that breaks away easily or has been broken away from

          something else

       E.G. The maid used soap flakes to wash the sweater.     

G-I

1.      gender (n.) الجنس – sex (male or female)

       E.G. The doctor noted the patient’s gender.

2.      generate (v.)  يولد ، ينتج – produce, create, cause

       E.G. The process generates heat.

3.     generation (n.) جيل – age group

        E.G. Most teenagers complain that their parents’ generation doesn’t understand them.

4.      give free rein to (v. expression) يعطي حرية التصرف – permit (to give someone complete freedom to do

        whatever he or she wants)

        E.G. Najeeba was given free reign to operate the clinic.

5.      give free rein to (v. expression) يعطي حرية التصرف – to allow an emotion or feeling to be expressed

       freely.

       E.G.  He gave free rein to his imagination. 

6.    glance (n.), glance (v.) يلمح – quick look

     E.G. The dentist glanced at her watch.

7.  gradually (adv.) تدريجياً – progressively

    E.G. The disease gradually worsened.

8.  Grotesque (adj.)  غريب، مشوه – bizarre, misshapen

    E.G. The baby’s head was grotesque because of the swelling.

9.  hint (v.), hint (n.)  ملاحظة  – imply, suggest

    E.G. This discovery hints at a cure for the disease.

10.  humanity (n.) الإنسانية – all the people in the world thought of as a group; the human race

    E.G.  It was a crime against humanity.

11.  humanity (n.) الإنسانية – the quality of being kind and understanding

      E.G. The prisoners were treated with humanity.

12.  hypothesize (v.), hypothesis (n.), hypothetical (adj.), hypothetically (adv.) يفترض – speculate,

      theorize

     E.G.  Scientists hypothesize  that a mutant gene causes the disease.

13.  imagination (n.), imagine (v.)  يتخيل– the ability to form ideas and pictures in your mind

     E.G. Autistic individuals have limited imagination.

14.  impair (v.), impairment (n.), impaired (adj.)  يفسد– damage, harm, weaken

      E.G. The blood clot may impair his chance of survival.

15.  individual (n.) فرد – person, human being

      E.G. An individual suffering from plague usually dies.

16.  individual (adj.) فردي – single

       E.G. The scientist examined each individual sample under a microscope.

17.  inflammation (n.) التهاب – redness, irritation

       E.G. The doctor prescribed a soothing lotion for my inflammation.

18.  inflame (v.), inflammation (n.), inflamed (adj.) – redden, irritate

       E.G. Some cosmetics inflame the skin.

19.  informal (adj.) غير رسمي – casual

     E.G. Informal language is not used in scientific writing.

20.  inherited (adj.), inherit (v.), inheritance (n.) يرث

      E.G. Hemophilia is an inherited disease.

21.  initial (adj.) ابتدائي، أولى – first, early

     E.G. Initial symptoms are wheezing and coughing.

22.  instantaneously (adv.) فوريا – immediately, directly

      E.G. Becoming a pharmacist does not occur instantaneously; you must study for many years

      before you graduate.

23.  intake (n.) يأخذ – ingestion

       E.G.  An intake of junk food will result in obesity.

24.  intended (adj.), intend (v.), intention (n.), intentionally (adv.) مقصود – planned for, meant for

       E.G. The intended purpose of the drug is to relieve pain.

25.  intensive (adj.), intensively (adv.) كثيف ، مركز – concentrated

       E.G. The course was only for a week, so it was very intensive.

26.  intoxicated (adj.)  سكران – drunk, inebriated

      E.G. He was intoxicated from the alcohol.

27.  invade (v.), invasion (n.) يغزو – attack, assault

      E.G.  When disease-causing germs invade a person’s body, he or she may become ill.

28.  invariably (adv.) ثابت – always, habitually, consistently, customarily, regularly

      E.G. He invariably comes late.

29.  irritant (n.) مثير – the cause of an irritation

      E.G. I’m not sure what the irritant is that is causing the rash on my skin.

30.  irritated (adj.), irritate (v.), irritation (n.) مثار، مهاج – inflamed

      E.G. The boy’s irritated arm caused him intense pain.

31.  island (n.) جزيرة – isle, atoll

      E.G. The island is located in the Caribbean.

 J-L

1.   jostling (n.), jostle (v.) يحتك، يصطدم – shoving against or pushing against in a rough way

    E.G. He was injured by the jostling of the crowd.

2.  abel (n.) label (v.) نعت ، لقب – description; definition

     E.G. One label for cigarettes is coffin nails.

            Cigarettes have been labeled as killers.

3. lapse (v.), lapse (n.) فترة زمنية قصيرة – break

   E.G. There haven’t been any lapses in security lately. 

4. lapse (n.)  غفلة– short memory loss

    E.G. Her error was caused by a lapse in concentration.

            There haven’t been any lapses in security lately.

5.  lead (v.) يتقيم عل

    E.G.  Hajar is leading the class for good grades.

6. lead (v.) يرشد – guide

    E.G. The nurse led the patient to the doctor’s office.

7.  lead (v.) يقود – control, run

     E.G. Nour leads a team of surgeons.

8.  lead to (v. phrase) يسبب – result in

     E.G. Eating too many sweets leads to obesity.

9.  lesion (n.) أذى، ضرر

   E.G. There was a lesion on his arm.

10.  limit (v.), limitation (n.), limited (adj.) يحدد – restrict; curb

      E.G. His new diet limits the number of calories he can consume daily.

             He needs to limit his appetite.

11.  luxurious (adj.), luxuriously (adv.) مرفه ، رغد – luxurious

      E.G. The Mercedes is a luxurious automobile.

M – 0

1.     malaise (n.)  توعك، انزعاج – depression, dissatisfaction, melancholy

       E.G. One symptom is malaise.

2.     malformed (adj.) مشوه – misshapen, deformed, abnormal, distorted

       E.G. The unfortunate baby’s arm was malformed.

3.     map (v.), map (n.) ينظم ، يرسم بتفصيل، خريطة – chart

New technology made it possible for scientists to map the part of the human brain responsible for

perception.

4. merge (v.) يركب أو يجمع – join together, come together, unite

   E.G. The two veins merge.

5.  Moist (adj.), moisture (n.)  رطب – slightly wet, damp

    E.G. Keep the soil moist, or the plant will die.

6.  momentum (n.) كمية التحرك – speed, strength

    E.G. The ball gained momentum as it rolled downhill.

7.  numbness (n.), numb (adj.) فاقد الحس – lack of sensation

    E.G.

8. occupied, (adj.), occupy (v.) مشغول ، محتل – being used; busy

    E.G. This seat is occupied.

            Taking care of her children keeps her occupied.

9.     occupy (v.) يشغل – to fill a space or period of time; to hold a position

       E.G. Alexander Fleming occupies a high position in the list of leading scientists.

10.  ordinary (adj.) عادي – common, normal, commonplace

       E.G. He was an ordinary person.

11.   Overdose (n.), overdose (v.) جرعه مفرطة – O.D.

       E.G. The woman took an overdose of sleeping pills.

 P-R

1.     particular (adj.) مفرد ، مستقل – This adjective is always used in front of a noun.

      E.G. One particular student, whom I won’t name, is not doing his homework.

2.   peak (v.) يبلغ الذروة – to reach the highest value, level, rate, etc.

     E.G. Her temperature peaked at 39º.

3. peculiar (adj.) خاص ، مميز – characteristic of

    E.G. A bitter smell is peculiar to that type of poison.

4.  peculiar (adj.) غريب – odd, strange

    E.G. He is a peculiar person

5. perception (n.), perceive (v.) ملاحظة ، الإدراك الحسي – awareness

    E.G. There is something wrong with his perception of the problem.

6. perception (n.), perceive (v.) رأي – opinion

    E.G. My perception is different than yours.

7.  Perplex (v.), perplexing (adj.) يعقد– puzzle, bewilder, confuse, confound, baffle

    E.G. The data perplexes me.

8. persist (v.), persistence (n.) يواظب – continue

    E.G. You should see a doctor if your fever  persists.

9.  population (n.), populate (v.), populated (adj.) سكان – inhabitants, residents

    E.G. Good healthcare results in a healthy population.

10.  Position (n.), position (v.) موقع، موضع – the place where something is or should be; opinion

      E.G. That specimen is in the wrong position.

11. position (n.) موقف – opinion

      E.G.  His position is that we should start again.

12. predisposition (n.), predispose (v.)  ميل، نزعه – tendency, inclination

      E.G. A genetic predisposition may cause autism.

13. prey on (v.) يعيش على ، يتغذى ب – feed on, live off of

      E.G. Some bacteria prey on other bacteria.

14. private (adj.) – personal

      E.G. His life as a movie star is different than his personal life.

15. professional (n.) محترف – someone who works in a job that requires special education and training

      E.G. Dentists and pharmacists are professionals.

16. progress (v.), progression (n.) يتطور – advance, grow

      E.G. As the disease progresses, the symptoms increase.

17. progressively  تدريجيا – gradually

      E.G. His condition progressively worsened.

18. proper مناسب – right, suitable, correct

     E.G. I put the book in its proper place.

19. proposed (adj.), propose (v.), proposal (n.) نوى ، اعتزم – recommend, suggest

      E.G. The proposed treatment is heart surgery.

20.  public (n.), public (adj.)  شعبي، عام  – community, general population; open

       E.G. The public has a right to know the truth.

               She left her purse in a public area.

21.  pulse (n.)  نبضه – heartbeat

      E.G. The nurse took the patient’s pulse.

22.  rash (n.) طفح جلدي – irritation, inflammation

      E.G.  She had a rash on her arms.

23. range (v.), range (n.)  متغير – vary, extend

     E.G. Their TOEFL scores ranged from 500 to 550.

24.  ravage (v.)  يتلف – damage severely

      E.G. The disease ravages the immune system.

25.  reality (n.) الحقيقة  – actuality

     E.G. Reality is people do not have wings, so they cannot fly.

26. recognized (adj.), recognize (v.) يميز، يتعرف – accepted

      E.G. That is not the recognized way to do that.

27.  recurrence (n.), recur (v.) عوده – reappearance, return

      E.G. The recurrence of plague is a possibility.

28. Refer (v.), reference (n.) يرجع إلى – to be associated with; to send to someone for information, help,

etc.

     EG. The term neoplasia refers to cancer.

           The man was referred to Dr. Faisal for treatment.

29.        regard (v.) يحترم – consider

          E.G.  Mohammed regards this issue as being very important.

30.      relate (v.), related (adj.) يتعلق أو يرتبط بشيء ما – link, associate

         E.G. The increase in lung cancer in women is related to the increasing number of female

         smokers.

31.     related متصل ب – kinned

        E.G. She is related to my family.

32.   replicate (v.), replication (n.) – duplicate, copy, imitate

       E.G. The mutant cell replicates itself. 

33.  residue (n.) الفضلة – deposit

       E.G. There was a brown residue in the empty beaker.

34.   Resistant (adj.), resist (v.), resistance (n.) مقاوم – not harmed by

       E.G. This watch is water resistant.

35.   resistant (adj.), resist (v.), resistance (n.) مقاوم – opposed to

       E.G. She is resistant to change.

36.  restore (v.), restoration (n.) يعيد – bring back (to the original condition), return (to the original

      condition)

      E.G. The patient will restore his health by following a new diet.

37.  rotated (adj.), rotate (v.), rotation (n.) يدور على محور أو مركز – revolve, spin

      E.G. The earth rotates around the sun.

38.  rule out (v.) يستبد، تشتي – eliminate

       E.G. Heredity has been ruled out as a cause of the disease.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: